Inventions & Patents for Stringed Keyboard Instrument

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Piano Patents

The bulk of these patents come from E Brinsmeads book, When time permits I will add more patents and bring it up to modern times.


OCT. 20, 1694. GEORGE JOYCE and P. EAST. Self acting harpsichord, etc.

Oct. 22, 1730 JOLIN HARRIS. Harpsichord (no description).

Dec. 17, 1730 WILLIAM BARTON. Metal plectra in spinets, etc.

Dec. 30, 1741 ROGERPLENIUS. Ivory and tortoise shell plectra.

July 10, 1745. ROGER PLENIUS. Harp stop and bushed keys.

Dec. 18, 1769. BURKAT SHUDI. Venetian swell over the strings.

Dec. 28, 1770. THOOMAS HAXBY, "A single harpsichord of two unisons which produces ten variations of stops."

May 2, 1771. RICHARD WAIZEFIELD. Ivory and metal plectra, and wrest pins.

Aug 29, I772. ADAM WALKER , The " Celestina," in which the catgut strings are vibrated by circulating, bands of silk, etc.

Sept. 12, 1774 JOSEPH MERLIN. A set of hammers, of the nature of those used in the kind of harpsichord called pianoforte, arc introduced [in a perfect harpsichord] in such a manner that either may be played separately, or both together. . . . BY placing the foot upon [the pedal] it gradually plays one unison, one degree lower plays the second unison, and lastly the octave, which produces the swell of an organ."

Dec. 28, 1774. S GILLESPY. Harpsichord with ,,a peddle and swell," by which the top of the instrument is raised and the stops worked.

Nov. 21, 1777. ROBERT STODART. Combined harpsichord and piano. (p. 1172)

July, 17, 1783. JOHN BROADWOOD. Position, of wrest pins and dampers, also making the "sounding post, that communicates the sound to a sounding board, of the same thickness and quality as that on which the bridge is fixed."(p.1379)

March, 11, 1786 G. J. CLIME. Grand Harmonica," with the strings stretched by weights, and struck by hammers. Strips of glass ranged in a frame produce sounds also, by means of balls set on wires, or by coining in contact with wheels rapidly revolved by a treadle.

Nov 9, 1786. JOHN GEIB. (i) Buff stop for pianos and harpsichords, screwed under the strings, and (2) grasshopper action."(p.1571)

Jan. 15, 1787 W. THOMPSON. System of tuning by means of a monochord with movable bridges.

March 31 1787 JOHN LANDRETH (1) Centring the jack in square piano with cork. (2) The same, or 9, some woolly substance, manufactured after the manner of a hat," is introduced in the upright pianoforte.

July, 25, i787. HUMPHREY WALTON. (1) Pedal for causing. the grand hammer to strike one, two, or three strings ; the hammers" striking perpendicular hammers which strike the wires. (2) The touch is regulated according to the fancy of the player, from the deepest to the most delicate [by] a regulating touch frame," inserted between the balance rail and the back rail of the key frame.(p.1596)

Jan. 15, 1781 SAMUEL BURY. "The instrument is a perfect pianoforte," which, by means of whalebone plectra fixed in a sliding board, and a slide which throws up the dampers, produces sounds " exactly similar to the dulcimer and harpsichord."

Aug. 15, 1788. C CLAGGET. (1) Piano called "Teliochordon". Besides the ordinary ones, two other bridges are placed nearer to the hammers, but in a just, proportion, according to the musical division of the string." Metal bars press down the strings by means of pedals, causing the original bridges to lose their power, thereby producing a more acute sound as the string is shortened by the secondary bridges and metal bars. (2) The keys are covered with glass or enamel, in place of ivory. (3) Another instrument has tuning forks or single rods of metal, instead of strings, set in vibration by means of finger keys and action.

April 13, 1790 JOHN HANCOCK. (1) Small pieces of leather between the strings, to deaden one string to each note, when required by the player. (2)A black sticker , presses down a palate at the bottom of pipes," in a case below the pianoforte, admitting wind from a bellows blown by a pedal. This flute stop can be used separately or in conjunction with the pianoforte.(p.1743)

Nov. 16, 1790. BALL. Square piano action, with under dampers, and a screw in each key, for making the touch deeper or more shallow. " The hammers are fixed by means of screws that press " on the centre wire.

Feb. 4, 1792. G.GARCIC.A. Position of wrest pins and sounding board.

April 18, 1792. JOHN GEIB . Combination of clavichord or spinet with pianoforte, " with two sets of keys to which either of these three instruments may be joined and played together."

June 6, 1792 JAMES DAVIS. Combined piano and harpsichord. "The upper row of keys is for the piano forte, and the lower for the harpsichord."

Oct. 17, 1794 SEBASTIAN ERARD. Two methods for escapement of the hammer, and an arrangement for striking one, two, or three strings at pleasure, by a side movement of the damper rail, etc. Harmonic octave produced by mechanism which pressed on the string exactly in the centre.(p.2016)

Oct 18, 1794 WILLIAM SOUTHWELL. Improved dampers, and addition of treble keys.(p.2264)

Jan. 12, 1795. WILLIAM STODART. "An upright piano in the form of a bookcase," in which ' both the hammers and dampers are returned by weight." (p. 2028)

Jan. 31, 1797. WILLIAM ROLFE, and SAMUEL DAVIS. Vellum, parchment, pasteboard, etc., varnished or oiled for sounding boards, instead of wood.

Nov. 8, 1798. WILLIAM SOUTHWELL. New method of applying additional notes. The frame turns down over the keys, and the "leader" is fastened to the hammer by a joint of leather. A harp played with keys is also mentioned in the specification.

Oct. 3, 1799 JOSEPH SMITH. Introduction of metal bracings in place of wood, " so as to admit the introduction, into the internal part of the instrument, of a drum, tabor, or tambourine, with sticks or beaters," as well as a triangle; all being brought into action by levers and cranks.

Jul 31, 1800. PETER LITHERLAND. "A method of keeping [pianos, etc.] in tune by means of " helical and other springs.

Nov. 31, i800. ISAAC HAWKINS. Spiral springs in Place of long bass strings. The strings are fixed in a perpendicular position, ranging from three to four feet in height to within a few inches of the floor. By means of "primary and secondary carriages.. . . . two, three, or more strings may be stretched at the same time" in tuning, "and they may be put in tune one with another, by turning the screws of the secondary carriages." A roller with pins acting upon levers shortens any strings, at the pleasure of the player, by pressing on and dividing them into varying lengths. The "poiatorise" stop is produced by another roller, which, revolving rapidly, causes projections upon it to strike on the hammers, thus keeping them continually striking the strings whilst the keys are held down. Between the hammers and the strings pieces of leather of varying thickness, are introduced, so as to change the tone gradually from forte to piano. The key frame is made to turn on pivots, for economy of space. Besides these improvements a volli subito is introduced, which, by the use, of the pedal, turn. over the leaves of the music book when required. (p.2446)

May 16, 1801. SEBASTIAN ERARD. The touch rendered either hard or soft to any degree, at the election of the player."(p.2052)

June 5, 1801 EGERTON SMITH and THOMAS TODD. Tuning by means of screw and lever, or by a wheel axle, and pulley ; which allow of " any number of being drawn up by one weight over a wheel or axle."

Nov. 7, 1801 JOLIN CONRAD BECKER. Half and quarter tones, produced by causing the wrest pins to move partly round their centres, thereby altering the tension of the string as may be required.

Nov. 10, 1801. A. BEIMETZRLIDER, and A. SCOTT. 'I Horizontal harp " piano ; the top opens at the back, forming a swell.

Nov. 28, 1801. EDWARD RYLLY. Movable key. board for transposing music simply by shifting the keyboard and action.

March 9, 1802 .Thomas Loud . Upright pianos rendered portable by placing the strings in an obique direction, " fixing the first bass strings from the left hand upper corner to near the right. hand lower corner, and the rest of the strings in a parallel direction. By this means an instrument standing only five feet high and four feet wide in front will admit of the bass strings being their full length, which is five feet two inches,"(p.2591)

March 24, 1802. PETER LITHLRLAND. " Helical, Spiral, or straight springs, for keeping the strings to their tension " and the piano in tune.

June 28, 1803. GEOIIGE WOODS. Strings attached to pulleys, beams, etc,, so that the whole may be raised or lowered in pitch at once.

Jan. 23, 1805. ED. THUNDER. ,Screw wrest pin."

April 8, 1807.WILLIAM SOUTHWELL. Cabinet pianoforte and action.(p.1807)

July 25, 1 1808 WILLIAM HAWKES. "Two sets of strings of two unisons to each ,;et." The action being, shifted by pedal so as to strike each set, produces g, seven diatonic and five flat tones to our present scale of twelve fixed tones."

Sep 24, 1808. SEBASTIAN ERARD. Repetition action, which 'I affords the power of giving repeated strokes, without missing or failure, by very small angular motions of the key itself."

July 26, 1809. DAVID LOESCHMAN. 11 By means of six pedals that cause the hammers to act upon twenty four distinct sets of strings," performers can " play in thirty three perfect keys!'

May 2, 1810. SEBASTIAN ERARD. The tuning pins inserted in a collar and socket for ease and smoothness in motion.

March 4,1811 WILLIAM SOUTHWELL. Piano sloping backwards, with improved action and damper wire.(p/3403)

March 4, 1811. J TROTTER. New keyboard arrangement.

March 26, 1811. ROBERT WORNUM. Improved upright pianoforte," with diagonal strings. Buff stop for stopping one string of each note is worked by a pedal. (p.3419)

Apri1 24, 1811 William BUNDY. Bass pianoforte strings covered with platina or other metal to produce powerful sounds by vibration.

Sep. 9, 1811. WILLIAM FREDERICK COLLARD. Square pianoforte "turned upwards on its end."

March 3, 1813. FREDERICK, HAUCK. Method of applying 'I additional keys, strings, hammers, etc. to old keyed instruments."

Dec.9, 1813 JOHN BATEMAN. "The Grand Claviler." The strings may be struck at or near the middle . . . in a similar manner to that of the finger upon the strings of a harp, by playing upon keys."

May 14, i8i6. WILLIAIM, SIMMONS. Barrel piano or harpsichord.

Oct. 14, 1816. JOSEPH KIRKMAN. Two strings in unison and one with separate bridges tuned to the octave above, are struck by one hammer, forming an octave stop."

Nov. 14, 1816. JOHN DAY. Frame of musical glasses played separately, or in combination with the piano, by finger keys and action.

Feb. 1, 1817. ISAAC MOTT. "The Sostinente piano forte" produces a sustaining tone through the strings being vibrated by a revolving roller, by means of silken lines attached to them. A movable bridge presses against the centre of the strings, and produces the effect by dividing them into two equal harmonic octave lengths.

Jan. 15, 1820 JAMES THOM and WILLIAM ALLEN. metallic tubular bracing to counteract the tendency of pianofortes to get out of tune from the swelling and contracting of the wood caused by atmospheric changes.

May 13, 1820 ROBERT WORNUM. One size wire used for stringing tenor and treble. The length of the first note is determined on the monochord, " and for all the 'corresponding notes upwards you must halve the several notes, and so on for as many octaves as you require, always halving for the last octave." This is intended to produce equal tension throughout the instrument.

March 8,1821. WILLIAM FREDERICK COLLARD. "The bridge of reverberation" is a third bridge below the two others to allow that part of the strings which is generally listed, or damped, to sympathise and vibrate in unison with the lengths between the ordinary bridges.

April 5, 1821. WILLIAM SOUTHWELL. Check action applied to cabinet pianos, to prevent the hammer rebounding, against the strings!'(p.4546)

Dec. 22, 1821 PIERRE Erard. (Communicated.) Repetition check action for the grand pianoforte.

Jan. 14, 1821 D, LOESCHMAN and J. ALLRIGHT, In the " patentt Terpodion " sounds are produced by friction on wood, metal, or any hard substance, played with pianoforte keyboard.

Feb. 18, 1823. FRANCIS DEAKIN. Improvement in steel wire and mode of fastening it. 1823 KOLMANN G. improved Action (p.5107)

(March 20 ?) 1823. STREICHER J. (Austrai) the hammer strikes from above

July 24, 1823. HENIIY. SMART. Check acting on the hammer.

Nov 22 1823 Thomas TODD, The strings are vibrated by a roller upon each side of the strings, when brought in contact by the key and action.

July 29 1824. WILLIAM WHEATSTONE. External surface covered with frames having vellum, etc., tightly drawn across, with trumpet mouthed holes, for augmenting the tone of the pianoforte.

Jan. 5, 1825. PIERRE ERARD. Wrest plank and key bottom united by pieces of sheet iron placed between the two sides of the case. New application of patentt Of 1821.

Jan. 18, i825. FRANCIS MELVILLE. Metallic bracing for square pianos.

Feb. 6, 1825. G. A. KOLLMAN. grand action and larger sounding board.

Oct. 6, 1825. JAMES SHUDI BROADWOOD. Check action applied to square pianos.

July, 4,1826. ROBERT WORNUM. (1) Hopper and two check actions. (2) 11 Pizzicato pedal." Down striking.

Feb.20 1827 PIERRE ERARD. Application of action to square pianos, 1821 patentt.

March 22 1827 JAMES STEWART. Wire put on without loops or " eyes," by making one continuous string pass round a single hitch pin, so as to produce the effect of two separate strings. (return strings)

April 9, 1827, JAMES SHUDI BROADWOOD. Metal string plate in the grand piano.

July 25, 1827. EDWARD DODD. Both bridges upon sounding board. The quality of tone is regulated by a brass nut and screw at the back of the hammer head.

Aug. 30, 1827 W. DETTMER. U Screws for altering the pitch.

July 10, 1828. J. H. A. GUNTHER. A second thicker sounding board, with the belly bridge upon it, is placed over the ordinary one.

July 24, 1828 R.WORNUM. Check acting on the back part of the lever.

Aug. 11, 1829. THOMAS ROLFE. Improved self acting pianoforte.

Nov. 2; I829. J. STEWART. Brass rail applied to back part of action frame.

Feb. 27, 1830 SIMON THOMPSON. Upright piano forte, having the top level with the lock board.

Feb. 2, 1831 J. C. SCHWIESO. Cast iron wrest plank.

July, 20, 1831 W. ALLEN. Cast iron grooved frame with the wooden wrest plank driven tightly into the grooves.

Sep. 8, 1832. F. P. FISCHER. Down striking grand action.

Nov. 1, 1833. JACOB ZEITTER, Sounding board bars made of two or more pieces.

Jan. 15, 1835. J. STEWART. Escapement action.

Sep, 1, 1831 E DAWHELL. Hammer shanks, suspended by an India rubber thread to the butt. Hollow bridge on sounding board.

Nov. 6, 1835. R. WOLF. Shell of curvilinear shape, in lieu of the usual sounding board."

May 13, 1835, P. FISCHER. Over strung piano. "In order to increase the length, I place the strings diagonally, and they then pass under the other strings."

Feb. 17, 1836. J. LIDEL. (1) Sounding board free, being fastened at one end only, (2) Piano effects are produced by the stroke of the hammer being shortened.

March 8, 1836. J. GODWIN. Strings run over others, or are placed across them in square pianofortes.

May 14, 1836. WHEATLEY KIRK. Double sounding board and complete metallic framing or support.

July 27, 1836. CHARLES WIIEATSTONE. Continuous sounds produced from pianoforte strings or springs, by means of currents of air which pass through apertures slightly wider than the body the air vibrates.

Aug. 24, 1837 W, SOUTHWELL. spring applied to hammer butt, to obtain repetition.

Feb. 21, 1839 JOHANN STUMPFF. Improvements in mechanism and tuning apparatus.

July 2, 1839. H. RAPE. Sounding board reversed and placed behind the bracings in a console shaped piano.

Feb. 14, 1840 J, CLARKE. Free sounding board, one part only being firmly fixed.

Sept. 24, 1840. PIERRE ERARD. Improvements in mechanism and string plate.

Nov. 7, 1840. E. DODD. Set of, strings on the back, as well as a set in front, of the frame, acting as a counterbalance, and " double pianoforte."

July 23, 1841. J. GODWIN. The wrest pin block is placed above the strings in the grand.

July 7, 1841 J, STEWARD. Complete metal framing to carry the strings. Upright pianoforte action, proceeding downwards, strikes near the under bridge.

Nov. 11, 1841 J. STEWART. Escapement action.

Jan. 15, 1842.T. LAMBERT. Improved cabinet action.

Feb. 2, 1842. HENRY BROADWOOD. Name board with pictorial representation "of the extension of the black and white keys for learners."

Feb. 15, 1842. R. WORNUM.. The "tape check action."

Feb. 11, 1843. H. Du BOCHET, Repeating square action.

Jan. 19, 1843. J. G. KIRKMAN. Improved action (no specification).

April 29, 1843 J, STEWART and T. LAMBERT. Cabinet repetition action.

July 26, 1844 CHARLES SAUTTER. Continuous sounds produced by a succession of shocks from hammers put in vibration by a revolving cylinder.

Oct 10, 1844. OBED COLEMAN. Eolian attachment. Reeds are attached to the bottom of the pianoforte case, and are acted upon by wind. They are played separately or in combination with the pianoforte.

Nov, 9, 1844. DANIEL HEWITT. Striking simultaneously in different parts of the string, etc.

Dec, 12, 1844. S. MERCIER. "Transposing piano."

April 7, 1845 W. IIATTERSLEY. Metallic elastic trusses for strengthening the framing.

Oct. 27, 1845. B. NICKELS. Two actions and sounding boards, and two sets of strings and keys, are employed for producing a combined upright and horizontal pianoforte.

Nov. 11, 1845 S. CROTTIMWELL. Elastic stops for producing harmonic sounds when pressed upon the strings in the centre of them.

April 28, 1846. ISAAC MOTT, " Metallic skeleton," applied to stringed instruments to resist the pressure caused by the tension of the strings.

June 16, 1846 F, BURKINYOUNG. Down striking grand action.

July 8, 1846 T. WOOLLEY. Movable key bed and frame.

April 29, 1847 J. SPEAR. India rubber applied between the movable parts to prevent noise.

Oct. 7, 1847. ALEXANDER BAIN. Electricity employed for playing several instruments simultaneously.

Aug. 12, 18S0. C, CADBY. Sounding board strained like a drum.

Sep 12, 1850. PIERRE ERARD. Metallic wrestplank.

Dec. 20 1850. J. PAPE. Vibrations of the strings increased by air, etc.

June 3, 18S1. J. HOPKINSON. " Clothing the hammers with sponge." Action with sticker jointed in the middle.

Nov. 15, 1851 PIERRE ERARD. " Laying the wires on or against the sounding board."

Nov. 20, 1851 T. STATHADJ. Metallic stop to the wrest plank and sounding board, for the purpose of relieving the latter from the pressure of the strings.

Jan. 27, 1852. T. LAMBERT. Bevelled lever.

Jan. 31., 1852. WILLIAM SQUIRE. Gravitation employed in a new check action, instead of springs.

July 15, 1852. H. GAUNTLETT, Pianofortes and organs played by means of electricity.

Oct. 1, 1852. G. BROCKBANK. Two wrest planks, between which the strings pass.

Oct. I, 1852. J. STEWART. Stop for the hammer at the back of the lever.

Nov. 17, 1852. H. RUSSELL. Flattened wire, in place of round pianoforte strings.

March 7, 1853. W, MATTHEWS. "Propeller Action," to prevent 11 blocking " in damp situations.

March 17, 1853 J. ASHENHURST. Hollow wood bracings and bridges.

May 30, 1853. H. HUGI1ES and W. DENHAAT. Continuous sounds, produced by two sets of hammers being successively brought into action.

July 6, 1853. R. RCST. Sound holes in the sounding board, with metal tubes passing through hollow bars inserted.

Aug. 16, 1853 J. STEWART. Connecting the sticker with the fore end of the lever, the back end being hinged to the lever rail in the upright pianoforte.

Oct. 6, 1853 JOSEPH CARY. Single check action with " loop and spring."

Dec. 22, 1853 J. SHAW. Construction and arrangement of the action and bracings.

May 1 , 1854 W WADDINGTON. The ribs or bars ii front, instead of at the back, of the sounding board.

May 8, 1854. G. THOMAS. Bracings dovetailed into the body of the wrest plank.

May 25, 1854 J. HARRISON. Metallic wrest plank and improved lever.

Aug. 23, 1854 W. S. SMITH. Rounded bridges with plates of metal.

Oct. 12, 1854. F. DELSARTE. Apparatus for tuning.

Nov. 3, 1854._E. ALEXANDRE. Combination of organ and piano.

Dec. 16, 1854. D. HEWITT. Piano constructed against any strong wall; the wall supplying the place of " costly framework with strong bracings."

Dec. 19, 1854 WILLIAM DREAPER. Application of compensating bars and generators of sound to the sounding board and bars.

July. 22,1855 J. PAPE. Tuning Fork piano.

April 28, 1855. JAMES MARSH, Piano capable of being separated for portability.

May 2, i855. T. LAMBERT. Hopper head connected with the hopper by a regulating screw.

Oct. 13, 1855 JOHN DEWRANCE. Cast iron framing, with wrest plank secured in a metal frame by bolts, and covered with a plate of soft metal.

Nov 1 1855. S DRIGG (U.S.A.). Metallic framing with sounding board within an independent metalli1 frame, which holds it in an arched form.

Nov. 23, 1855. J. FISHER. Reversible hammerhead.

Jan . 3, 1850. R GUICHENE. Connecting rods, which cause chords of the note to sound when a single key is struck.

Jan. 25, 1856. W. OWEN. Second sounding board.

Feb, 13, 1856. W. MOUTRIE, Springs acting upon the dampers.

Feb. 26, 1856. J. STEADMAN. Arched bars "for the support of the sounding board and central bridge."

April 16, 1856. F. PRIESTLY. ,Rocking lever or butt to each key, constructed with a hammershank and hammer."

July 11, 1856. A. N. WORNUM. Repetition Grand action.

Oct. 9, 1SS6. J. and E. SHAW. Separate strings for sharps and flats.

Oct, 10, 1856. D. SHIRLEY (U.S.). Simplified action, "to render it cheap, and to prevent blocking."

Nov. 6, 1856. J. LA CABRA. Arrangement of sticker and check.

Dec. 1, 1856. J. C. HADDON. Metal framing, "and loading the bass strings with buttons, . . . placed upon them so as to obtain deep notes" with short lengths of strings. The strings are galvanized or tinned "to preserve them from oxidation."

Feb. 26, 1857 WILLIAM MILLS. Escapement upon the upper part of the sticker.

April 9, 1857.T, ROLFE. Vulcanized or plain India rubber, in place of wire, for a " check."

May 11, 1857.S. HALLETT. Strings are arranged concentric with the sound boards. One, two, four, six, or eight keys " may be applied to the same instrument.

May 13, 1857. H TOLKIEN and J. MIDDLETON Hard wedge or wedges," inserted in the bracings for strength.

May 14, 1857. G. CRAWFORD. Upper bridge entirely, of glass. The sounding board has a double bridge, indented with bone or ivory instead of pins.

July 25, 1857. K OETZA1ANN and T. L. PLUMB. Hopper acting directly on the hammer butt.

Sep 3, 1857. T. JACKSON. Check upon hammer butt by sticker.

Oct. 30, 1857 M. STODART. Reduction in thickness of sounding board, from the bridge outwards, towards each edge where it is fixed.

Nov 11 1857. H, and S. Thompson. Additional stickers, for producing an octave or chord at will when a single key is struck.

May 13, 1858. A. WOLFF. "Independent pedallier"

Sep. 21, 1858. JOHN DEWRANCE. Compensating bars in bass of piano.

Oct. 2, 1858. J. and E. HOLMAN. Upright pianoforte action.

Nov. 17, 1858. J. ROBERTSON. Thicker sounding board, with the surface grooved out " longitudinally in parallel lines."

Dec 9 1858. BURROWS Set of rectangular cranks, to elicit the sound of two notes by the touch of One key.

Dec. 9, 1858. J. STEWART. Hopper escapement action,

Feb. 11, 1859. C. JACKSON. Escapement hopper.

Feb. 11, 1859 C. MILLS. Improved hopper.

Aug. 15, 1859. C. GLASBOROW. Sounding board and strings in front, and a second set behind the bracings, to produce equal tension and sympathetic vibration of the two sets of strings.

Aug.. 30, 1859.JAMES HARE. Improvement in wrest pins and string plate.

Sept. 6, 1859. J. STESSIART. Improved escapement action.

Oct, 4, 1859. G. GREINER. (1) Appliance for tuning two strings at the same time. (2) Pedallier with leather covered plectora for pulling the strings.

Nov. 30, i859. F. MATHUSEK (New York). Sounding board, strings, etc., are arranged so as to make them somewhat similar in action to instruments of the violin class.

Jan 2.1860. DR. HURLIMANN (Zurich). Light wooden frame. . . .Metal bars, . . . placed between the sounding board and the strings, . . . extend in the same direction, . . . and are fastened to the wrest plank near the piano pins, and below on the iron plate on which the strings are fixed."

April 17, 1860. S. B. DRIGGS (U.S.). Graduated sounding board and bridge.

April 28, 1860. T. MOLINEUX. Single check action with loop and spring.

May 21, 1860. C DE MEYER. Two sounding boards " fitted on metallic construction of framework."

May, 29, 1860. W. NOSWORTHY. Sounding board passing under detached metal bridge.

July 28, 1860. J. PAPE. The hammers "have two, three, and even four faces, instead of a single one," to replace the surface worn by use. The height of this piano is two and a half feet only.

Aug 3, 1860. C WILLIAMS and E. F. FALCONER (U.S.), Bells instead of strings.

Aug. 27, 1860. J. P. PIRSSON (U.S.). The "Trylodcon," a combination of the piano and harmonium.

Sept. 25, 1860. CARL KIND. Repetition grand action.

Dec. 29, 1860. H. VINER. " One set of keys transmits motion to two sets of hammers, . . . one to strike up [on the strings in the grand piano], and the other to strike down " upon a second set of strings tuned ill unison with, or an octave above or below, the upper set.

Feb. 2, 1861.W. PRANGLEY. "Rise [in the key] at a point before it reaches its centre pin."

May 21, 1861. WILLIAM DREAPER. 1' Tie rod is applied to . . the bars of the sound board in such manner as to draw such bar or bars into a bent form."

June 20, 1861. J. L. CLEMENT. To overcome the non continuity of sound, "an arrangement somewhat similar to the bow of a violin," acting separately, or simultaneously with the hammers, is added to the piano.

June 20 1861 J. R. COTTER. Strings pulled by claw shaped plectra in the middle of their length.

July 18, 1861 B. JOHNSON and W. H. ANDERSON. Double sounding Board, with " swell valves " and 11 the Very forte pedal for sounding octaves.

Nov. 16, 1861 R. T. WORTON. " Lyro pianoforte." A pianoforte and harpsichord combined.

Dec.3,1861. R. A. RCST. Sloping front and sliding extended desk.

Feb. 11, 1862. JOHN BRINSMEAD. Grand and upright mechanism for producing " a perfect check, great power, and quick repetition."

Feb. 13, i862. WILLIAM WILLIATMS. Diagonal bass strings, inclining towards the right in grand pianos, and continued below the keyboard towards the front of the keys.

Feb. 26, 1862. C L. KNOLL. Connecting rods from. the keyboard to cause the action to strike upon strings at the back of the instrument.

Feb. 26, 1862. E. G. BRUZAM Two dampers for each note.

March 10, 1862. W. S. NOSWORTII Keyboard, pedals, and seat raised above the usual height, enabling vocalists to read the performer's music.

March 20, 1862. J. G. THOMPSON. Enharmonic scale and shifting keyboard.

April 7, 1862. THOMAS J ACKSON. Spring on end of sticker that causes a check.

April 14, 1862 J. M. FRENCH. Hollow wooden bracings.

April 19, 1862. A. N. WORNUM. Improved damper.

April 30, 1862. H. F. BROADWOOD. Metal plate over the wrest planks of Grand's, tapped to receive wrest pins upon which either a male or female screw has been cut.

May 9, 1862. G. F. GREENER and I. H. C. SANDILANDS, Improved grand action.

May 22, 1862.G. CRAWFORD. Small pianoforte with metal prongs instead of strings.

June 23, 1862. R. COOK. Metal employed for tops of hoppers.

June 28, 1862. G. H. HULSKAMP, Compressed sounding board.

Aug 27, 1862 J. J. POTTER. Improved upright action.

Sept. 11, 1862. J. MOLINEUX. Sticker action with check.

Feb. 5, 1863. R. A. BROOMAN (FRAN90IS DE, LSARTE). Method or tuning two strings simultaneously.

Feb. 13, 1863 S. M. INNES. Transposing keyboard.

March 16, 1861 W G. EAVESTAFF. Check action.

April 29, 1863. W. FARR and E. FARR. Improved action.

July 31, 1863 B. JOHNSON. 'Combination of piano Sep. 30, 1863 W. CLARICE. Combined piano and organ or harmonium.

Nov. 12, 1863. G. H. BROCKBANK. Perforated metal plate between sounding board and strings.

Nov. 20, 1863, A. H. FERRY, Hammer head made so that the coverings can be tightened or loosened.

Jan. 18, 1864. W. H. MARICS. Piano with four strings to each note, two of which are tuned an octave higher or lower than the other two.

April 12, 1864. R. A. ICEMP. Tuning the piano forte scale by means of twelve harmonium reeds.

April 20, 1864. A. V. NEWTON. Action for producing increased power in short horizontal grands.

June, 1864. A. V. NEWTON (JOHN WINTER JONE). Combination of piano and drum.

June 15, 1864 R. A. BROOMAN. Improved tuning apparatus.

July 4, 1864 J. W. JONES. Down striking action.

July 19, 1864. E LEA. Combined piano an harmonium.

Nov 4, 1864. T. J. V. ROZ. Transposing keyboard.

Nov 1 1864 W. Moody. New tuning apparatus.

Jan. 17, 1865. K H. LAKIN, Tuning by means of levers on metal plate over wrest plank.

March 9, 1865. W. T. HAMILTON, Guide for the position of the hands in playing.

April 4, 1865. W. MOODY and W. J. HULAND. New method of stringing.

April 15, 1865. G. E. Way Improved metal plate in cross strung square pianos, with repetition action.

June 26, 1865. W. E. NEWTON. Metal frame over thin boards in sweep side and wrest plank.

June 30, 1861. R. A, BROOMAN. New tuning apparatus.

Aug, 5, 1865. H. C. BAUDIT. Violin piano.

Oct. 5, 1865. B. JOHNSON. Combined piano and organ.

Oct. 10, 1865 G G Rich Improved Dampers

Nov, 29, 1885 E FARR and J. GREGORY. Improved Action.

Dec, 7, 1865. W. E. EVANS. Transposing key Board

March 23 1866. J. MACINTOSH. Trumpet shaped covering to be placed over the piano or vocalist, so that the tone may be augmented by means of compressed air

April 3, 1866. G. HASTLETINE. Pianoforte with four strings to each note, two of which are struck, by an action above the keys and two by an action below the kev board

April 5, 1866. B. JOHNSON. Combined piano and harmonum.

April 24. 1866. S. Thompson Octave couplers to pianoforte keys.

July 10, 1866. J MILLWARD. Combination of Piano, couch, closet, and bureau with toilet articles. The music stool is constructed to contain a workbox, a looking glass, a writing desk or table, and a set of drawers.

Aug. 24, 1866. W. E. NEWTON (QEORGE BYRON KIRKIIAM). Movable transposing keyboard.

Sep, 4, 1866. E. FARR and T. GREGORY. Each string passes from its wrest pin completely round both sides of the sounding board so as to obtain an equal upward and downward pressure.

Nov. 28, 1866, G. HASTLETINE [LEVI SMITH TOWER.] Improvements in the mode of, and means for regulating and registering the tension of pianoforte strings.

Dec. 3, 1866. M. A. F. MENNONS [JUAN AMANN]. Apparatus for Performing by means of electro magnetism

Dec. 14, 1866. H. BRINSMEAD, action.

Feb. 4, 1867 J. F. PHILLIPE. Metal frame cast in one piece.

March 6, 1867 W. E. GEDGE. Transposing action.

March 18, 1867, H. SIMMS. Tone resonator.

May 9, 1867 A. HERCE. Keyboard to enable performer to face auditors.

June 3 1867 E McLEAN. Arched resonator at top of piano.

Oct. 16, 1867. W. H. MAY. Impregnating sounding boards with salt water.

Oct. 19, 1867 M. J. MATT1IEWS. Double pianoforte strung at back and in front.

Nov. 1, 1867 J. GILSIOUR. Improved back.

Nov. 6, 1867. A. M. CLARIC. Vibrating hammer set in motion by a cylinder for producing sustained tones by continuous blows.

Nov. 16, 1867. R. W. PEARCE. Hollow case made on violin principle and placed under feet of piano.

Feb, 27, 1868, F. WIRTH, Assistant for raising parts only of the dampers, by means of the loud pedal.

March 6, 1868. J. BRINSMEAD. [Perfect check repeater action] for producing perfection of touch with increased durability.

Aug. 20, 1868, G. CALKER. Diagram of music in front of keyboard for beginners.

Sep. 1, 1868. E JOBSON. Hammers covered with velvet or other piled fabric instead of felt.

Sept. 16, 1868. G. R. SAMSON, New method of stringing.

Oct. 28, 1868,W. DAWES. (1) A zinc compensating frame. (2) Double sounding board. (3) Mechanism for producing sustained tones by repeated blows. (4) Octave coupler.

Nov. 6, 1868. T. HARRISON, Improved action.

NOV. 23, 1868. C. MONTAGUE. Framing covered with caoutchouc.

Dec. 17, 1868. J. T. HALL. Improved hinges for piano tops.

Dec. 28, 1868. J. P. MILLS. Drawn steel wrest pins.

Jan. 20, 1869. T. STEINWAY. (USA) Metallic action frame.

Feb. 11, 1869. R J. S MITH. Metal bars under sounding board.

April 14, i869. E. DOWLING. Application of T headed screw to fly rest.

April 28, 1869. K BAUER. Combined wood and metal framing.

April 30, 1869,L. B. FORTIN. Improvements in felt machinery.

May 26, 1869 C. F. CHEW. Transposing double keyboard and metal bars in wooden bracings.

July 2, 1869. J. STEWARD. Sounding board with concave bars.

July 14, i869. C. BREWER. India rubber tubes for under covering of bass hammers.

Sep 7 1869 T. KING. Check action.

Nov 11 1869, J. JULES. Combined piano and organ.

April 8, 1870. J. H. KIRKMAN. Steel bar in wrestplank.

Nov 23, 1870 W G. EAVESTAFF. Check action.

Nov. 29, 1870 T. LAMBERT. India rubber springs for action.

Dec. 1, 1870 H. L. GLEIG. Sounding board extended under metal wrest plank "bridge"

Dec. 1, 1870 A. N. WORUM. Position of wrest pins.

Jan 8. 1871 W Tongue. Flattened steel wire kept in vibration by currents of air.

Feb. 16 1871. T. LAMBERT. improved action, with zinc, lead, or tin slates on top of hoppers.

March 5, 1871. J. BRINSMEAD. Improvements in piano action.

March 30, 1871. F. and R. HUND. Cast iron frame.

April 25, 1871. A. ZEWADSKI. Octave coupler.

April 27, 1871. D ROGERS, J. MONONINGTON J. WESTON. Combined wood and metal bracings.

June 1, 1871. C. F. Chew, (1) Conical pins. (2) Adjustable tension straps. (3) Straps for strengthening bridges. (4) Hollow resonator.

June 21, 1871. I LIEBICII and W. PATERSON. Harp effects caused by tongues of metal placed between strings and hammers.

July 20 1871 NORMNTON. Self escapement hopper.

Aug 12, 1871.R. GAUNT. Metal hinges.

Sept. 20, 1871.E MOLYNEUX. Electro magnetic mechanical arrangement.

Oct. 3, 1871. T. JACKSON. Improved hopper.

Nov 22, 1871 J ANIANN. 'Mechanical arrangement for playing keyboard instruments.

March 20 1872. R. SIMITH. Laminated sounding board. Patent number 842

April 16 1872 C. S. VENABLES. Two damper pedals.

May 1, 1872. C. A. DE LAZKAWSM, H. KIMMAN. Tuning forks used in place of strings.

May 1, 1872. L. GUNTHER. String rail.

May 14, 1872. C, T. STEINWAY. Improved agraffe or stud. USA

Aug. 16, 1872. C. F. GOFFREE and J. H. SCHULL. Improved method of balancing keys.

Oct. 14, 1872. E. B. GOWLAND. Double bearing on bridge, with down pressure bar.

Jan 2, 1873 k. D. B. WOLFF. Transposing key board attachment.

March 17, 1873. J. BURTON. Metal frets.

May 6, 1873, W. FRIUDENTHEIL, Cast iron wrestplank.

May 31, 1871 D. G. STAIGHT and S. STAIGHT. Alabaster or gypsum substitute for ivory.

June 18, I873 C. J. COKHEAD. Improved damper.

July 31, 1873 U. C. HILL. Cellulated bell, or tuning fork piano.

Oct. 15, 1873 C. H. L. PLASS. Repetition action.

Dec. 1, 1871 H. HANICINSON. Transposing key board.

Feb. 9, 1874 H. CHATWIN. Mother of pearl in lieu of ivory.

Feb. 27, 1874 J. H. DUNKLEY, Sounding board carried up to top bridge.

May 6 1874, J.B,HAMIILTON, Coiled, flat, or round wires.

May 20,1874. E. ILIFF and J. RINTOUL, Simpleaction.

June 12, 1874 C. J. COXHEAD. Prolongs On keys

July 14, 1874 E W. WHITEMAN, India rubber used instead of felt in every part of the action.

July 27, 1874. D. IMTROF. Automatic piano.

Sept. 2, 1874 M. W. HANCTIEL. Dampers mechanically held after the strings have been struck.

Oct. 20, 1874 W. MEAD. Combined piano and, musical box.

Nov 23 1874 A. STEINWAY. Dampers mechanically held after the strings have been struck.

Nov 25, 1874. j. B. HAMILTON, G. WADE, and R. W. VOSEY. Compensating springs attached to strings to prevent changes of pitch.

Jan. 2, 1875. W, R. MILLER. Insulators.

Jab. 27, 1875. G. H. BROCKBANK. Simple action.

Feb. 19, 1875. Z T. BURLING. A system of tuning'

Feb. 20, 1875 G. and A. ROBERTS. Escapement action.

March 1, 1875 J. ELL1s. Transposing keyboard.

March 6, 1875. j. BRIN&MEAD. Perfect check repeater action for producing increased durability as well as perfection of touch.

March 16, 1875 R. H, ROGERS. Simple action.

May 13, 1875 A. D. B. WOLFF, Stops for regulating dampers.

May 31, 1875. T. B. HOWEL. Method of strengthening back.

July 17, 1875 E. G. BURLING Banjo attachment.

Aug 21, 1875. A. MONTGOMERY. Improved arrangement of keyboard.

Aug 31, 1875 R. NORMINTON. Transposing keyboard.

Nov. 5, 1875 C. J. WARD. Harmonic seraphltite, with concertina key board applied to a stringed instrument.

Nov. 12, 1875. A. D. B. WOLFF. Improvements in the wrest plank and pins.

1875. Wornum, Robert & Sons, 16, Store Street, Bedford Square, London. A short Iron Grand Pianoforte (length under 6 feet). Method of construction invented and patented by A.N. Wornum in 1875. It has the advantage over the usual German method of "cross-stringing" in that, whilst the strings are arranged parallel, and their lengths are not reduced, and it allows the iron-work in particular and the construction in general to be simpler, and of less weight. It also does away with the necessity of widening the front of the case. The action is withdrawn from the bass side, leaving the keys and "damper action" in position.

April 19, 1876. C. E. ROGERS (U.S.A.) (i) New damper. (2) Universal joint connecting key and jack. (3) Improved escapement. W Three springs to counteract atmospheric influence. (5) String plate and new method of tuning the strings.

May 30, 1876 K WIRTH. (I) Additional strings and bridges for producing the overtones. (2) improved dampers.

Aug. 1, 1876. G. T. BOUSFIELD. Hand rest for position of the player's hands.

Sep 23 1876. G. A. CASSAGNES. Nickel plating of strings and metal work.

Oct. 14, 1876 J. C. WARD. (1) The strings, hammers, and stickers are alternately placed on the opposite sides of the frame. (2) Harmonic angelute.

Nov. 7, 1876. J. ROBINSON Combined piano and harmonium.

Feb. 6, 1877. J. T. Combined piano and, harmonium or organ.

Feb. 20, 1877. E. LECOMTE. (1) Strings set in vibration by the longitudinal friction of prepared felt rubber. (2) The forked dampers.

Feb 27, 1877 H . BROOKS. Improved action,

March 23, 1877 E. ZACHARIAE. Cellular boxes, within the instrument to augment the tone.

Oct. 20, 1877. J. M0NINGTON and J. WESTTON Transposing keyboard.

Nov. 20, 1877 C. PIEPER, Second row of strings and hammers for producing the octave and fundamental tones simultaneously.

Dec. 29, 1877 H. WITTOX. Improved action.

July 5, 1878 T. HOWLLLS. Portable pianoforte. The strings arc stretched horizontally along the exterior of a hollow cylinder or framework; the action operates upon the strings from the interior of the cylinder.

July 23, 1878. E C. CADOT. Automatic equaliser for pianoforte keys.

August 20, 1878 S. F. WASLE, Resonators under the castors.

March 20, 1879 J. BRINSMMEAD. (1) Sostenente sounding board, glued on rim of soft wood. (2) New form of metal plates and supports. (3) Improved repeater check action. (4) Improved sticker action. (5) Various appliances of tone sustaining pedal. (6) Strength of sounding board regulated by springs.

July 11, 1879 W. P. WALLACE. Improved castor for more free vibration of pianofortes.

April 5, 1879 H. HEUBACH. Improvements in transposing keyboards.

April 8, 1879 A. H. WOOD. Improvements in sounding boards of upright pianofortes.

April 17, 1879. W. A. WADDINGTON, Improved action for upright piano.

July 5, 1879. ERNST KAPS. Increasing the force and richness of the sound of the middle and treble

May 5, 1879. P0LMAN, AND SON. Improvements in the action for the purpose of facilitating repression

July 17, 1879 J. ROBINSON instrument to pianoforte.

Sep 3o, 1879. W H. NVE. Upward and downward bearing of sounding board bridge or string supporting sounding board, by stringing under and over

Oct 8, 1879 G. GREEN and C. SAVAGE Combination of American Organ with on one set of keys

Oct 24, 1879 J. W. GOUNDR Application of electric current to keys of pianoforte

December 30, 1879. J, TURVEY, "celeste" pedal to grand pianofortes.

Jan. 8, 1880, A. G. GIGNEY. Light or heavy touch procured by application of springs.

Jan. 13, 1880 R. HOWSON. Crescendo and diminuendo effect produced by Forcing sound board into contact with vibrating plank.

Jan 27, 1880. J, DIXON. Apparatus to prevent piano getting out of tune, consisting of two sound boards with strings over each.

May 5, 1880 MENRY WHITTON. Improvement of centring the key, in the sticker action, and modifications of damper action and escapement.

May 15, 1880. C. A. SCHUSTERIUS. Improvement in construction by supplementary sounding boards.

July 30, 1880. H. W. P0HLMANN, Improvement to obtain lightness combined with strength and improvement and continuity of tone.

Sep. 4, 1880. J. GANTMIZ. Improvements in construction of iron frames obviating the ' break " in the key and hammer rail.

Sep. 13, 1880 R. HOWSON. Constriction enabling performer to increase or diminish the sound at will.

Sep 1880 A. HELLIG Improvements in Tuning,

Oct 13 1880 S CRKAERT Improvements in combination of harmonium, and similar reed instruments with pianoforte.

Oct. 16, 1880. H. R. SCHMIBER, Improvements in action.

Oct. 18, 1880. V. C. A. P. D. G. NYMIRUCK and L. A. BENNON. New and simplified mechanical action.

Nov. 15, 1880. J. KEW. Avoiding any break in the scale or spacing of the strings in vertical iron fronted

Feb. 8, 1881. A. K. HEBARD. Improved stringing pianofortes.

March 10, 1381. G, GREEN and C. SAVAGE. Improvements in combining harmonium and other similar reed instruments with pianoforte.

May 19 138. J. GOETGELUCK. Improvements in supports or feet of glass for insulation.

May 21, 1881. T. J. BRINSMEAD. Improvements in the construction of the frames and tuning pins of piano ' fortes, dispensing with the old system of tuning by pins driven into wood and with the necessity of using any wood in the back and wrest plank. (a) By employing metal screw tuning pins which are turned with the greatest facility, increasing or decreasing the tension of the strings. Improvements Simplification of Improved method of (b) Constructing the frame which takes the strain of the strings entirely of metal, ensuring the frame from the action of damp or extreme heat,

May 31, 1881. A. K. FIEBARD. Improvements in action of upright pianoforte.

July 14, 1881. J. MAAS and J. BROWN. Improved check action.

July 22, 18S1. J. BROWN. Improvements in piano forte actions, producing by one movement a check action, escapement, and back touch, either separately or combined.

Aug. 8, 18S1. F. L. MITCHELL. Improvements and simplification of pianoforte actions.

Aug 12, 1881. J. M. LABOISSIERE and C. L. DANJON. Improvements reducing cost of manufacture and simplifying construction and action.

Aug 16, 1881. J. BRINSMEAD. Improved check action and leverage sounding board for pianofortes.

Aug 18, 1881. C. COLLARD. Improvements in construction, particularly as to producing the "celeste" effect in horizontal pianofortes.

Sep 5, 18S1. W. H. SQUIRE. Improvements in construction.

Sep 13, 1881. GOTTLO PHILIP. (1) Combined Check and repeater action. (2) Regulating and actuating, the damper by a jack and other modifications.

Sep 27, 1881 R J. RUMIMENS. Improved means of applying organ pedals to pianofortes,

Oct. 6, 1881 WILHELM FISHHER. Employment of forks of metal similar to tuning forks to produce musical notes in pianos.

Nov. 4, 1881. G. H. BROCKBANK. Improvements in pianoforte actions, gaining a superior repetition.

Dec . 1881, JOSEPH BOMIMELAER. Operating on keys by electro magnets.

Jan 9 1882. GEBRITDER KNAICE. Improvements in repetition action.

Feb. 17, 1882. EDMUND OUTRMINI. Improvements in the means of stringing, regulating. and controlling the pitch or tone.

March 7, 1882. J AINSWORTH, Apparatus for connecting pedals with the keys.

March, 9,1882 B. SQUIRE. Improvements in actions for increasing the strength and power of tone.

March 16, 1882. GEORGE WILDE. Improvements In fitting tuning, pins or pegs.

March 16, 1882. HENRY WITTON. (1) Improvements to secure a certain and uniform action of the hopper fly,. (2) Improvements on the back frame of pianofortes fitted with iron fronts.

March 23, 1882 SAIM PEPLER. Improvements to increase and improve the quality of tone,

March 24, 1882 BATTES. Improvements in construction of instruments having diagonal and crossed strings.

July 20, 1882. J. MALLINS Improvements in In the actions a simple construction and not liable to get out of order.

July, 28, 1882. W. A. WADDINGTON. Improvements in construction, fixing a metal bar to the sounding board.

Aug 24 SQUIRE . Improved steel wire for pianofortes, and other musical instruments.

Sep. 7, 1882. ELLIS PARR Improvements in steel frames and tin plates for pianofortes.

Sep. 9, 1882. A. W. L. REDDIE, Improvements in keyboard instruments. (i) To facilitate regulation of keys without removal. (2) To avoid shrinking of wood. (3) To facilitate the making of keys.

Oct . 17, 1882 W. H. SQUIRE, Improvements of actions.

Jan. 26, 1883 CYPRIAN F. SOUTHACK. Improved method of stringing pianofortes.

Feb. 16, 1881 CARL CAMIN. Improvements in construction avoiding "knocking" by a "new treble bridge," a channel being formed between the sounding board and bridges, open at both ends and gradually widening towards the shortest string.

Mar. 1, 1883. H. J. HADDMVI. Improvements in pianoforte actions and in the method of attaching the sounding board.

April 11, 1881 Louis N. LETAILLLUR and PETRUS, SCHOLTUS. Improvements in sounding board, increasing its solidity and sonority.

May 4, 1883 JOSEPH HERBURGERBURGER. Improvements in manufacture of pianoforte actions.

June 29, 1883 J. J. ROBINSON. "Increased in construction with increased efficiency in operation."

July 23 1883. CECIL, COLLARD. Improvements in The action preventing all risk of " blocking."

Aug 13, 1883. ADOLF LEEXOW rendering the pressure of the releasing action imperceptible.

Oct. 2, 18S3. CECIL COLLARD. Construction of action of upright pianofortes, so as to reduce the friction of the parts to a minimum, and so adjusting the actions that they may be completed without regard to the instruments to which they are to be applied.

Oct. 5, 1883. JAAIE.9 RUSlITON. Attachment of organ pedals to pianoforte.

Oct. 31, 1883. W R. ELMENHORST. Transposing pianoforte.

Nov. 19, 1883 EMIL HOFINGHOFF, ' Improved attachment for obtaining different qualities of sounds.

Nov. 20, 1883 MAX JUNGER, Improvement in hammers for pianofortes.

Dec. 17, 1881 RICHARD HOWSON. Improved Sounding board and pedal attachment thereto,

Jan. 1, 1884 J. RUSI1TON. Pedals to pianofortes.

Jan. 2, 1884 . GRINDROD. Mechanism for attaching the strings to wrest plank.

Jan. 2, 1884 J. SHAW. Application of note pedals to the action of pianofortes.

Jan. 3, 1884 . SEATPLE. Improved action. Key acting directly on the hammer butt.

Jan. 5, 1884. M. DAVIS. Simplified action.

Jan. 7. 1884 C GREEN and C. SAVAGE. Escapement produced by action of a roller variously placed.

Jan. 10, 1884. M. SNOW. Notes marked on keys and distinguishing colour to corresponding keys.

Jan 25 1884 C. MARN Two parallel sounding boards.

Feb. 2, 1884 J. HERBURGER. improved action.

Feb, 4, 1884 G, B. RISSONE Automatic cylinder pianos.

Feb. 5, 1884 M. MAKINSON. Construction of' pianoforte frames.

Feb. 5, 1884. A. SQUIRE. Improvements of action.

Feb. 6, 1884 P. S. HORN. Special arrangements for adjusting the strength and depth of touch.

Feb. 8 1884 W. S. NOSMORTHY. sounding boards.

Feb. 9, 1884 W. R. LAKE. Mechanism for sustaining tone.

Feb. 15, 1884 J. DELERUE. Sound boards for pianofortes.

Feb. 2 1884. A. Improved escapement of sticker from hammer butt notch.

March 28, 1884 F. G. FAIRFIELD. Swell shutters to regulate tone.

April 23, 1884. E. CAPITAINE. Wrest plate mechanism for adjustment of tone.

April 6, 1884 J. STUTTAFORD. Pedals for musical instruments.

April 28, 1834. J. M. SMITH. Sound boards increase sustaining power.

May 17, 1884 1. PRITCHARD. Combined piano and harmonium.

June 14, 1884 T. DODDRELL. Improved shape of grand pianofortes.

June 14, 1884, F. DOWNING. Improved action.

June 21, 1884, W H. DREAPER Strengthened sound board.

July, 25, 1884 C. ERHARDT, Improved pianoforte hammer rails.

Sep 5 1884 K. Y. LANGLOTS Paper sound boards.

Sep. 19, 1884 J. Y, JOHNSON. Supplementary strings behind or underneath the sound board, tuned to vibrate in unison with the ordinary strings.

Oct. 1, 1884 J. BOURRY. Iron frames

Oct. 2 1884. G. KEMP. Mechanism to produce graduated intensity of sound.

Oct. 22, 1884 C. COOPER. Double sound board.

Oct. 28, 1884 J. VIVIER, Substitute for wrest pins for pianos.

Oct. 31, 1884. T. TURNER. Simplification of pianoforte action.

Dec. 1, 1884 J. Y. JOHNSON. Improved Pianoforte action.

Dec. 15, 1884. T. C. TURNER. Improvement of keyboard.

Jan. 9, 1885. CARI, HAPEL. Application of core wire of triangular, quadrangular, or polygonal section to strings of pianofortes and other stringed instruments.

Jan. 14, 1885. CECIL COLLARD. To ensure greater Resollance in piano fortes by "gripping plate" upon the bridge.

Jan. 27, 1885. PAUL GIVIELIN. To increase the singing quality" of tone by means of additional singing strings interposed between the regular strings.

Feb. 9, 1885. F. HUDSON. Improvements dampers.

Feb 10, 1885. F. H. BROWNE. Application organ pedals to pianofortes.

Feb. 24, 1885 JOSEPH HERRBURGER. Iron Or steel rails on pianoforte actions.

Feb. 26, 1885. R T. WEDLAKE. Application organ pedals to pianofortes.

March 5, 1885, G. H. VENABLES. Protection of Piano hammers from damp, especially applicable to pianofortes exposed to varying temperatures.

April 6, 1885. HERRMANN WOLFRA2MAL Amendment of former specification.

April 29, 1885, MADAME VEV AMEDEE. Substitute for wood by use of frames of iron, having abutting arches for resisting. tension of strings; string plate and wrest plank being also of metal.

May 8, 1885. ADAM CRAIG. Action without hopper or spring and regulating the depth of touch.

May 12, 1885. JOHN BRINSMEAD. (1) Dispensing with wooden bracings and framing and constructing the metal string frame so as sufficiently to resist the tension of the strings. (2) Enabling the sounding board to bellied so as to compensate for inequalities ill its several parts, and fixing the sounding board to the string frame, whereby the instrument is completely self contained and can readily be inserted ill any case.

June 2, 1885. N. BERRY. Metal cases for pianofortes

June 5, 1885. EMIL HOFINGHOFF. Damper on sounding board to diminish the tone at will.

June 24, 1885. R GUNTHER. Increasing tone by lengthening bass and regulating middle and upper strings.

Aug. 12, 1885. EDWARD BISHOP, Reduction in friction and case in regulation of action.

Aug. 22, 1885. F. & H. COLLINS & G. WHEELER Relieving of strain on wrest pins.

Sep 4, 1885. EDWARD BBISHOP,. Improving backs of pianos and fitting the wrest plank.

Sep 19, 1885. H. HARDY. Modification of stringing whereby hammer strikes four, five, or six strings to each note.

Sep. 21, 1885. V. R. EDDINGTON. Attachments for actuating pianos and organs.

Oct. 9, 1885. F. STEVENS. Improved action to relieve stickers and jacks from the butts of the hammers.

Oct. 20, 1885. B. B. BRADBURY. Second and isolated sounding board to increase volume of tone.

Nov. 11, 1885. J. H. SCHUCHT and J. A. SCHONEWALD. Appliance for tuning pianofortes.

Nov. 25, 1885. WILLIIAM MARSHALL. Transformation of the pianoforte into an upright grand "Chordarnia", the performer facing his audience, while the bass part of the instrument is from 6ft. to 8ft. height

1 Jan. 6, 1886. E BISHOP. Extended sounding board.

Jan. 6, 1886. E BISHOP Arched board bridges for pianofortes.

Jan. 25, 1886. E. A. SYDENHAM. Regulating the touch of pianofortes, enabling performers, to the touch of the pianofortes on which they chose on which they practise.

March 22, 1886 JOSEPH DELERUE. Improvements in check Movement and regulation.

April 19, 1886. P BERNER. Improvements in tension and tuning mechanism of pianofortes.

June, 29, 1886. J DELERUE. Further improvements in pianoforte actions.

July, 9, 1886. J DELERUE. Regulating bar to string plate and wrest plank

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