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Thank you, Yvette.
Basically, you're going to play notes 'around' the one in the score. This can be either on the beat, or (as in the case you've specifically asked about), on the off-beat. The natural referred to in this case is E.
NB my Peters edition of the score shows a cadence making an appearance at bar 20, and then again in bar 21.
E flat, D natural, D natural (held not played), F natural, E flat
But what my fingers must do is:-
E flat, D natural, D natural held, E flat, D natural, C natural, D natural, F natural, E flat?
And in bar 21, I see:-
E flat, F natural, A flat, C natural
But must play:-
E flat, F natural, E flat, F natural, G natural, F natural, A flat, C natural?
Are those right? If horribly wrong, I'd appreciate it if you could give me the right notes!
This is one of those areas you could really do with a bit of hands-on support from a teacher, to be honest... We can list out the notes, but it's tough to explain how it should be played! I trust that you've got some records to consult on this in the absence of a teacher?
If you want a book to describe it all in detail, the Associated Board theory of Music book is brilliant and has hardly changed through my lifetime.
Incidentally, the term 'cadence' is more normally used to describe a chord sequence at specific points in music. This usage is certainly very novel to me.
Incidentally, this site has a reproduction of Bach's ornamentation table: http://members.aol.com/kjvisbest/jsb_ornm.htm, or there's a facsimile on this page: http://www.jsbach.net/images/ornaments.html.
There's also a copy in the introduction to the Peters edition of the Two- and Three-Part Inventions.
Amazing, and Thank You!
- Colin Nicholson
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Perfect (V-I) Imperfect (II/IV/VI - V) Plagal (IV - I) and Interrupted (V - VI).... these are like musical punctuation marks and denote a brief or final ending to a piece of music.... some abrupt, others are passing.
The turn is not a cadence, but simply an ornament (decoration around a note).
They may 'decorate' a cadence (eg trill), but they do not form cadences.
The turn in its simplest form consists of 4 notes:-
1. Note above (upper auxiliary note)
2. Note itself (principal note)
3. Note below (lower aux note)
4. Note itself again.
It also depends where the turn is written, if directly above a note, the turn starts immediately, if between 2 notes, the turn starts afterwards. If an accidental is places above or below the turn sign, this affecting the corresponding upper or lower aux note.
If you need this short extract of the Beethoven written out in full for you, let me know, I'll post a musical score for you. You can also refer to the ABRSM Grades 4 & 5 theory of music books for an explanation.... although I use my own course notes for my students.
Hope that helps....
I missed the "natural" modifier below the turn notation, which made it sound not right. Instead of hitting the books, I hit Google with "bar 21 pathetique" for instant satisfaction. Silver lining is having found a wonderful piano discussion forum.